Poor nutrition is linked to 5% of new cancers in the United States, particularly the colon.
It is no longer a secret that our diet and lifestyle have had an impact on our health and the risks of developing various diseases. But a new study goes further. According to an American research published May 22 in the medical journal JNCI Cancer Spectrumin the United States, 5% of new cases of cancer detected in 2015 among those over 20 could be related to a poor diet.
To arrive at these conclusions, the researchers used a Comparative Risk Assessment model incorporating national data on diet, cancer numbers and estimated associations of diet with the risk of cancer from cancer analyzes. previous studies conducted on Americans over 20 years old.
They worked by taking into account the following factors: low consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, dairy products and a high consumption of processed meat products, as well as the absorption of soft drinks such as soda. . Results: "Too low consumption of whole grain cereals has been associated with the highest risk of developing cancer, followed by too little dairy and too much processed meat," says Dr. Fang Fang Zhang, nutritionist and epidemiologist in charge of cancer. 'study.
A percentage comparable to the "cancer rate attributable to alcohol"
Thus, in 2015 in the United States, a poor diet would have caused 80 100 cancers. "This is the equivalent of 5.2% of all newly diagnosed invasive cancer cases among US adults in 2015. This percentage is comparable to the rate of alcohol-attributable cancers," Fang Fang Zhang said.
In detail, the most food-related cancer is colon cancer (38.3% of cases in 2015), the researchers observed. This cancer mainly affects non-Caucasian men aged 45 to 64 years. Then come cancer of the mouth, pharynx and larynx. At the same time, excessive weight and lack of physical activity have been associated with 7 to 8% and 2 to 3% of cancers, respectively.
"Previous studies have already shown that high consumption of processed meats increases the risk of colorectal cancer and that low seed consumption increases the risk," says Zhang. And to conclude: "However, our study quantifies the number and proportion of new cases of cancers attributable to poor nutrition at a national level".
In 2015, 603 million obese adults in the world
These results are all the more worrying because in North America, 35.7% of adults are currently obese. Since 1980, obesity has more than doubled in 73 countries around the world. In 2015, 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults suffered from this disease. The same year, overweight was linked to four million deaths.
In France, on the other hand, obesity and overweight stabilized between 2006 and 2015 among adults and children. This does not mean that the figures are not consistent: in 2015, more than one in two adult men was overweight or obese (54%), compared to 44% of women, obesity alone concerning 17% of adults . That year, among the youngest, overweight and obesity affected 16% of boys and 18% of girls (4% of whom were obese). Finally, as a rule, the risk of being overweight increases with age and especially among men (7 out of 10 men aged 55-74). Regardless of sex, the risk of being obese doubles between the thirties and the sixties.
As for colorectal cancer, in the Hexagon, it affects and kills 45,000 and 28,000 people each year respectively. A tragedy when we know that the disease, diagnosed early, is cured in nine out of ten cases. Unfortunately, it is often diagnosed too late because of the absence of significant symptoms in the early stages. That is why the French health authorities invite people aged 50 and over by mail to be tested free of charge every two years.
Colonoscopy, a visual examination of the colon through a catheter, is the most common way to detect polyps before they become cancerous. However, there are other solutions that are less invasive and uncomfortable, but all equally effective. If you do not present a particular risk requiring an adapted follow-up, your doctor can for example give you an immunological test to make at home.